Oil Exploitation and Challenges of Development in the Niger Delta Region

Filed in Articles by on November 5, 2022

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This research work is centred on critical analysis of the manner in which oil exploitation is conducted in the Niger Delta Region. It also focuses on how the Niger Delta environment is contaminated via the activities of oil exploitation, thereby leading to abrupt destruction of her natural habitats.

As a result, hardship in the survival of the inhabitants owing to the refusal of the Federal government and Multinational oil companies to embark on drastic human and infrastructural development as an alternative to the bastardized environment in the Niger Delta.

The methodological approach to this research work is based on content analysis of literature on available textbooks, journals, magazines, newspapers, internet sources, articles and other unpublished works by professionals.

Against this backdrop of the research, we come to bear the fact that oil exploitation in the Niger Delta over time has been wrongly fashioned and confirms the position of the Niger Deltans been deprived, alienated, marginalized and neglected.

Also ascertained was the justification of the crises condition of the people of the Niger Delta as a result of idleness and poverty amidst the oil wealth.


Title Page                                                                                               i

Certification                                                                                           ii

Dedication                                                                                             iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                 iv

Abstract                                                                                                 v

Table of content                                                                                     vi

Map of study                                                                                         vii

List of tables                                                                                          viii

List of pictures                                                                                       ix

Chapter One:       INTRODUCTION

1.1     Introduction                                                                                 1

1.2     Statement of problem                                                                   4

1.3.    Objectives of the study                                                                6

1.4     Significance of the study                                                              7

1.5     Literature review                                                                          8

1.6     Theoretical framework                                                                 29

1.7     Hypothesis                                                                                   37

1.8     Method of data collection/analysis                                               37


                              NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENT

2.1   The Composites of the Niger Delta Environment                         38

2.2     Oil Exploration and its Resultant Effects on the Environment      43

2.3     Oil Prospecting and the Era of Arms Proliferation in the Region 51

2.4     Poverty Perpetuated Amidst Oil Exploitation in the Niger Delta   53


                               AND INFRASTRUCTURAL NEGLECT

3.1     Infrastructural Neglect – The Oloibir Example                            58

3.2     Federal Government Boards/Commissions for

Host Communities Development – A Mirage.                             65

  • Expropraitory Laws of the Federal Government

Against Oil Host Communities.                                                   75


                              AND REACTIONS FROM NIGER DELTA OIL

                              HOST COMMUNITIES

4.1     Elites and Conflicts Generation in the Niger

Delta Oil Host Communities.                                                      79

4.2     Brief History of Crisis/Chronology of Crises in the Niger Delta.  81

4.3     Impact of Crisis on Oil Production.                                             85

Chapter Five:                 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

5.1     Summary                                                                                     87

5.2     Conclusion                                                                                  88

Recommendation                                                                         91

Bibliography                                                                                98


Oil exploration activities commenced in the Deltaic region of Nigeria in the early 1900s by a Germany entity referred to as the “Nigeria Bitumen Corporation” which started her exploratory activities in the Araromi area of the then Western Nigeria but their activities were truncated by the outbreak of the World War I in 1914 (NNPC: 2005; 1-2).

Oil exploration activities thereafter started with the Shell D’Arcy (the forerunner of Shell Petroleum Development Company, SPDC of Nigeria) in 1937 when Shell was awarded the sole concessionary rights covering the whole territory of Nigeria.

Their activities were also interrupted by the World War II but they resumed in 1947 and with concerted efforts, after several years and investment of over N30 million, the first commercial oil well was discovered in 1956 at Oloibiri in present Ogbia Local Government of Bayelsa State in the Niger Delta region.

This discovery opened up the oil industry in 1961 in Nigeria, bringing more oil firms like the Agip, Mobil, Safrap (now Elf), Texaco and Chevron to petroleum prospecting both in onshore/offshore areas of Nigeria (Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation, NNPC; 2005:1-2).


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Anthonia, T. O. (1997), Global Versus Regional Peace Keeping: A survey of Nigeria’s involving  in the ECOWAS ECOMONG operation in Liberia NIDER: Ibadan, Burmsay  Nigeria Ltd.

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Barrett, L (2008), The Niger Delta: The true Story. New African Publishers.

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CSN Team.

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