Phytochemical and Antivenom Evaluations of Methanol Leaf Extract of Clerodendrum Capitatum (Willd) Schum. and Thonn. (Verbenaceae)

Filed in Articles by on September 23, 2020

Phytochemical and Antivenom Evaluations of Methanol Leaf Extract of Clerodendrum Capitatum (Willd) Schum. and Thonn. (Verbenaceae).


Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd) Schumach and Thonn. is a common medicinal plant found mainly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world where it is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions including erectile dysfunction, wounds, diabetes mellitus, hypertension.

The investigations started with the qualitative microscopic and macroscopic evaluation of the leaf material and establishment of its quality parameters,

including physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation as no detailed pharmacognostic study or establishment of quality parameters has been done on this plant to date.

The powdered leaf was then macerated using 70% aqueous methanol to obtain a brownish gummy extract. The extract was partitioned into n-Hexane fraction (HF), Ethylacetate fraction (EF) and n-Butanol fraction (NF) and the EF was further subjected to phytochemical analysis.

In addition, the extract was then evaluated for its acute toxicity and anti-venom properties. Prominent characters include numerous multicellular covering trichomes, anomocytic stomata, vascular bundles and prisms, sheath and cluster of calcium oxalate crystals were recorded.


1.1 Background of Study

Plants are indispensable to the existence of man. The important necessities of life – food, clothing, shelter and a hosts of others are supplied by the plant kingdom.

The biotic  and abiotic elements of nature are all interdependent. It has provided a complete store – house of remedies to cure all ailments of mankind.

The knowledge of drugs has accumulated over thousands of years as a result of man’s inquisitive nature so that today we possess many effective means of ensuring health care (Kokate et al., 2008).

In the 19th century, microscopy was introduced for the quality control of pharmaceutical preparations from plants.

However, for too many years pharmacognosy remained with these methods, and with the rapidly decreasing number of herbal preparations in the pharmacy,

the discipline had great difficulties in holding their prominent position in the pharmaceutical curriculum in the sixties and seventies.

Fortunately, some visionary pharmacognosists were able to open up new directions (Kokate et al., 2008).


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