Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Assessment of Spondias Mombin (Ijikara)

Filed in Articles by on July 25, 2022

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Assessment of Spondias Mombin (Ijikara).


Spondias mombin leaves are popular choices in traditional herbal medicine practice. The present study of the leave extract, therefore, shown the phytochemical constituents, of phenol content and the antioxidant activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Spondias mombin.

Results from the phytochemical screening test on S. mombin extract revealed the presence of alkaloids saponnis, anthranoid, phenol and reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides, and tannins.

Spondias mombin is a fructiferous tree that belongs to the family Anacardiaceae with about 14 species worldwide. In Nigeria, it is called with several local names, such as (Ijikara).


Title page                                                       i

Approval                                                         ii

Dedication                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                            v

Abstract                                                         iv

Table of content                                              vi-viii


1.0  Introduction                                             1-3

1.1 Scope of study                                                4

1.2  Statement of the problem                          4


2.0  Literature review                                        5

2.1  Description of the plant                             5

2.2  Classification of the plant                                  6

2.3  Use of the plant                                        7-12


3.0 Materials and methods                                       13

3.1Collection and processing of the material               13

3.2 Preparation of test organisms                        13-14

3.3 Extraction of the plant materials                     14-15

3.4 Antimicrobial susceptibility test of the Spondias     mombin extracts   15-16

3.5 Tests for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the leaf extracts    16-17

3.6 Test for the bactericidal/fungicidal concentration of the extract   17-18

3.7 Phytochemical screening of the extracts               18

3.7.1 Test for saponins                                            18

3.7.2 Test for anthranoid                                         18

3.7.3 Test for anthroquinone                                    19

3.7.4 Test for phenol                                              19

3.7.5 Test for alkaloid                                             19

3.7.6 Test for tannins                                              20

3.7.7 Test for phylobatannins                                          20

3.7.8 Test for cardiac glycoside                                20

Table 4.1 Zone diameter of inhibitory of the soxhlet and aqueous extracts of Spondias mombinplant extracts    21

Table 4.2: minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MICS) and MBCS/MFC) of spondias  mombin plant extracts. 22

Table 4.3 Phytochemicals present in Spondias mombin leaf exracts  23

4.4 Discussion     24-25


5.0 Conclusion and recommendation                         26

5.1 Conclusion           26

5.2 Recommendation       26

References                                                             27 


Spondias mombin is a tree, a flowering plant that belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae. It is readily common in Nigeria, Brazil and other tropical forests of the world with high genetic variability among populations. The plant has been naturised in some parts of Africa, Indians etc.

It is a fructiferous tree that grows in the coastal areas in the rain forest in a big tree of up to 15-22mm in height. However, the plant is known as Hog plum in English, Akika in Yoruba, Ijikara in Igbo, Isader maser in Hausa, Chabbuli in Fulani and Nsukakara in Efik.

The leaves bark and fruit of the plant have been widely used for both medicinal and non-medicinal purposes, thus the plant has been screened as unconventional sources of vitamin A and C, and all parts of the tree are ethnopharmacological importance.

A tea of the flowers and leaves is taken to relieve various inflammatory conditions, stomach aches and has wound healing potential (Ayoka and Akomofela, 2008). The tree is commonly used for living fences, in farmlands and shelter by artisans.

It has a deciduous, alternate, pinnate leaves (20-45cm long) and harry pinkish, pointed leaflets which are in equilateral and abique at the base. The fruits huaged in numerous branched clusters, are aromatic, ovoid and blong in shape.

The wood is used for making huts, garden poles, axe, and hoe handles in tropical Africa. It is also popular for carving amults, statuettes, cigarette holders and various ornamental objects.


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