# Roman Numerals: Charts, History, their Meaning & Origins

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The ancient Romans used a unique system of numbers known as Roman numerals. These symbols, such as I, V, and X, were employed to represent numbers in both writing and mathematics.

While Roman numerals may appear mysterious or sophisticated, once you understand the basics, they are pretty simple.

It’s a great privilege for us to share the history and use of Roman numerals as well as how to read and write them. Let’s explore Roman numerals!

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**Roman Numerals**

Roman numerals are a type of number system that is used to represent a fixed integer value.

It was widely used throughout Europe as the standard writing system until the late Middle Ages.

It came into being as the ancient Romans figured that once a number reaches 10 it becomes very hard to count on one’s fingers.

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Thus, there was a need to create a standardized system that could be used for trade and communications.

Modern Roman numerals use seven letters to represent different numbers. These are I, V, X, L, C, D, and M which hold the integer values of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 respectively.

Once you understand the rules to read and write this, it will be very easy for you to work with them.

**What are Roman Numerals**?

Roman numerals are essentially a decimal or “base ten” number system, but instead of place-value notation (in which place-keeping zeros enable a digit to represent different powers of ten).

The system uses a set of symbols with fixed values, including “built-in” powers of ten.

Tally-like combinations of these fixed symbols correspond to the (placed) digits of Arabic numerals.

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This structure allows for significant flexibility in notation, and many variant forms are attested.

There has never been an officially binding, or universally accepted standard for Roman numerals.

Usage in ancient Rome varied greatly and became thoroughly chaotic in medieval times.

it is desirable to strictly follow the usual style described below.

Arabic | Roman |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

30 | XXX |

40 | XL |

50 | L |

60 | LX |

70 | LXX |

80 | LXXX |

90 | XC |

100 | C |

101 | CI |

102 | CII |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1,000 | M |

1,001 | MI |

1,002 | MII |

1,003 | MIII |

1,900 | MCM |

2,000 | MM |

2,001 | MMI |

2,002 | MMII |

2,100 | MMC |

3,000 | MMM |

4,000 | MMM or MV |

5,000 | V |

**Roman Numerals Chart**

The chart can prove to be very helpful when converting a Roman numeral to an integer value or vice versa.

By changing the placement of these letters we can convert a natural number into a Roman numeral. Similarly, the converse operation can also be performed.

For example, we have the Roman numeral LX. The value is (50 + 10) = 60.

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Thus, we can say that if a symbol holding a greater value is placed after another symbol of greater or equal value, it will be added.

However, if a symbol of a smaller value is placed before a greater value symbol, it will be subtracted. Thus, XL will be (50 – 10) = 40.

In addition to these basic conversions, there are a couple of rules you need to be watchful of while converting the digits to Roman numerals and vice versa.

**Rules for Writing Roman Numerals**

Students must remember the rules for writing Roman numbers to avoid mistakes.

There are 4 basic principles for writing these numbers as listed below:

1. The letters I, X, and C can be repeated thrice in succession. Additionally, L, V, and D cannot be repeated or the number is considered to be invalid.

2. If a lower-value digit is written to the left of a higher-value digit, it is subtracted.

3. If a lower-value digit is written to the right of a higher-value digit, it is added.

4. Only I, X, and C can be used as subtractive numerals.

**Rules to Convert Roman Numerals to Numbers?**

The following are the rules for converting Roman numerals to numbers.

1. To multiply a number by a factor of 1000 a bar is placed over it.

2. A letter holding a lower value that is placed to the left of a higher value number results in the subtraction of the smaller number from the larger one.

3. A letter holding a higher value that is placed to the left of a lower value number results in the addition of both values.

**Roman Numeral Converter**

This is the number system developed in ancient Rome where letters represent numbers. The modern use of Roman numerals involves the letters I, V, X, L, C, D, and M.

To convert Roman numerals greater than 3,999 use the table below for converter inputs.

Use a leading underline character to input Roman numerals with an overline. A line over a Roman numeral means it is multiplied by 1,000.

For example;

C = 100,000. Enter C into the converter as _C.

CM = 900,000. Enter CM into the converter as _C_M.

Roman Numerals Chart

Roman Numeral | Number Value | Use As Inputs |

I | 1 | I |

V | 5 | V |

X | 10 | X |

L | 50 | L |

C | 100 | C |

D | 500 | D |

M | 1000 | M |

I | 1000 | _I |

V | 5,000 | _V |

X | 10,000 | _X |

L | 50,000 | _L |

C | 100,000 | _C |

D | 500,000 | _D |

M | 1,000,000 | _M |

The largest number you can write in Roman numerals is 3,999 which is MMMCMXCIX.

You can represent numbers larger than 3,999 in Roman numerals using an overline.

An overline on a Roman numeral means you are multiplying that Roman numeral by 1,000.

For the number 50,000 in Roman numerals, you would use the Roman numeral L (50) with an overline to make it 50,000.

For example; L means 50 × 1,000 = 50,000. To enter 50,000 into this calculator as a Roman numeral enter _L.

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