# Roman Numerals: Charts, History, their Meaning & Origins

**– Roman Numerals –**

**Roman numerals, a number system that was devised by the ancient Romans for the purpose of counting and performing other day-to-day transactions. Several letters from the Latin alphabet are used for the representation of roman numerals.**

The symbols are I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, standing respectively for 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 in the Hindu-Arabic numeral system.

A symbol placed after another of equal or greater value adds its value; e.g., II = 2 and LX = 60

A symbol placed before one of greater value subtracts its value; e.g., IV = 4, XL = 40, and CD = 400. A bar placed over a number multiplies its value by 1,000.

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They are typically utilized as general suffixes for people across generations, hour marks on a clock, to denote the names of Popes and Monarchs, etc.

In this article, we will see how to write and interpret Roman numerals.

Additionally, we will also explore the various tips and tricks that can be used to make this chapter easier to learn and understand.

**Roman Numerals**

Roman numerals are a type of number system that is used to represent a fixed integer value.

It was widely used throughout Europe as the standard writing system until the late middle ages.

It came into being as the ancient Romans figured that once a number reaches 10 it becomes very hard to count on one’s fingers.

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Thus, there was a need to create a standardized system that could be used for trade and communications.

Modern Roman numerals use seven letters to represent different numbers. These are I, V, X, L, C, D, and M which hold the integer values of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 respectively.

Once you understand the rules to read and write this, it will be very easy for you to work with them.

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**What is Roman Numerals**

Roman numerals are essentially a decimal or “base ten” number system, but instead of place-value notation (in which place-keeping zeros enable a digit to represent different powers of ten).

The system uses a set of symbols with fixed values, including “built-in” powers of ten.

Tally-like combinations of these fixed symbols correspond to the (placed) digits of Arabic numerals.

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This structure allows for significant flexibility in notation, and many variant forms are attested.

In fact, there has never been an officially binding, or universally accepted standard for Roman numerals.

Usage in ancient Rome varied greatly and became thoroughly chaotic in medieval times.

it is desirable to strictly follow the usual style described below.

Arabic |
Roman |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

30 | XXX |

40 | XL |

50 | L |

60 | LX |

70 | LXX |

80 | LXXX |

90 | XC |

100 | C |

101 | CI |

102 | CII |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1,000 | M |

1,001 | MI |

1,002 | MII |

1,003 | MIII |

1,900 | MCM |

2,000 | MM |

2,001 | MMI |

2,002 | MMII |

2,100 | MMC |

3,000 | MMM |

4,000 | MMM or MV |

5,000 | V |

**Roman Numerals Chart**

The chart can prove to be very helpful when converting a Roman numeral to an integer value or vice versa.

By changing the placement of these letters we can convert a natural number into a roman numeral. Similarly, the converse operation can also be performed.

For example, we have the roman numeral LX. The value is (50 + 10) = 60.

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Thus, we can say that if a symbol holding a greater value is placed after another symbol of greater or equal value, it will be added.

However, if a symbol of a smaller value is placed before a greater value symbol, it will be subtracted. Thus, XL will be (50 – 10) = 40.

In addition to these basic conversions, there are a couple of rules you need to be watchful of while converting the digits to Roman numerals and vice versa.

**Rules for Writing Roman Numerals**

It is necessary for students to remember the rules for writing Roman numbers in order to avoid mistakes.

There are 4 basic principles for writing these numbers as listed below:

1. The letters I, X, C can be repeated thrice in succession. Additionally, L, V, D cannot be repeated or the number is considered to be invalid.

2. If a lower value digit is written to the left of a higher value digit, it is subtracted.

3. If a lower value digit is written to the right of a higher value digit, it is added.

4. Only I, X, and C can be used as subtractive numerals.

**Rules to Convert Roman Numerals to Numbers?**

The following are the rules to convert roman numerals to numbers.

1. To multiply a number by a factor of 1000 a bar is placed over it.

2. A letter holding a lower value that is placed to the left of a higher value number results in the subtraction of the smaller number from the larger one.

3. A letter holding a higher value that is placed to the left of a lower value number results in the addition of both values.

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**Roman Numeral Converter**

This is the number system developed in ancient Rome where letters represent numbers. The modern use of Roman numerals involves the letters I, V, X, L, C, D, and M.

To convert Roman numerals greater than 3,999 use the table below for converter inputs.

Use a leading underline character to input Roman numerals with an overline. A line over a Roman numeral means it is multiplied by 1,000.

For example;

C = 100,000. Enter C into the converter as _C.

CM = 900,000. Enter CM into the converter as _C_M.

Roman Numerals Chart

Roman Numeral | Number Value | Use As Inputs |

I | 1 | I |

V | 5 | V |

X | 10 | X |

L | 50 | L |

C | 100 | C |

D | 500 | D |

M | 1000 | M |

I | 1000 | _I |

V | 5,000 | _V |

X | 10,000 | _X |

L | 50,000 | _L |

C | 100,000 | _C |

D | 500,000 | _D |

M | 1,000,000 | _M |

The largest number you can write in Roman numerals is 3,999 which is MMMCMXCIX.

You can represent numbers larger than 3,999 in Roman numerals using an overline.

An overline on a Roman numeral means you are multiplying that Roman numeral by 1,000.

For the number 50,000 in Roman numerals, you would use the Roman numeral L (50) with an overline to make it 50,000.

For example; L means 50 × 1,000 = 50,000. To enter 50,000 into this calculator as a Roman numeral enter _L.

**Frequently Asked Questions About Roman Numerals**

Below are some frequently asked and answers provided for you:

**What are Roman Numerals?**

Roman numerals are the symbols used in a system of numerical notation based on the ancient Roman system. The symbols are I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, standing respectively for 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1,000.

**Do Roman Numerals Have a Base?**

Roman numerals are essentially a decimal or “base ten” number system, but instead of place-value notation (in which place-keeping zeros enable a digit to represent different powers of ten), the system uses a set of symbols with fixed values, including “built-in” powers of ten.

**What Base are the Roman Numbers?**

“Base ten” number system, but instead of place-value notation (in which place-keeping zeros enable a digit to represent different powers of ten), the system uses a set of symbols with fixed values, including “built-in” powers of ten.

**Are There any Patterns in the Roman Numerals?**

For example, the number 1732 would be denoted MDCCXXXII in Roman numerals. However, Roman numerals are not a purely additive number system. In particular, instead of using four symbols to represent a 4, 40, 9, 90, etc.

**What Should Roman Numerals Represent?**

The Roman numeral system uses only seven symbols: I, V, X, L, C, D, and M. I represents the number 1, V represents 5, X is 10, L is 50, C is 100, D is 500, and M is 1,000. Different arrangements of these seven symbols represent different numbers.

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