The Pattern Of Susceptibility Test In Wound Infections

Filed in Articles by on June 30, 2021

The Pattern Of Susceptibility Test In Wound Infections


Wound infection continues to be problematic in clinical practice where empirical treatment of infection is routine. A wound is defined as any injury that damages the skin and therefore compromises its protective function. A retrospective study to determine the causative organisms of wound infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in the Hopes hospital and laboratory, Nnewi, Anambra State of Nigeria.

Records of wound swabs collected from 60 patients with high suspicion of wound infection were analysed. Smears of the wound swabs were inoculated on appropriate media and cultured. Bacterial isolates were Gram stained and microscopically examined. Biochemical and sugar fermentation tests were done to identify pathogen species. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic testing.

Prevalence of wound infection was 83.3%. Most bacteria were Gram negative rods with Klebsiella pneumoniae being the most prevalent pathogen isolated. The bacterial isolates exhibited a high degree of resistance to antibiotics tested (50% – 100%). All isolates were resistant to zinnacef and tarivid and almost all the isolates were susceptible to streptomycin.

There was a significant association between the age group and the aetiological agent. Sex did not exert any effect on the prevalence, aetiological agent or antimicrobial resistance pattern. I suggest a multidisciplinary approach to wound management, routine microbiological surveillance of wounds, rational drug use and institution of strong infection control policies.


 Title page

Certification                                                                                                                i

Dedication                                                                                                                  ii

Acknowledgment                                                                                                       iii

Abstract                                                                                                                      iv

Table of contents                                                                                                        v

List of tables                                                                                                               viii

List of figure                                                                                                               ix

Appendix                                                                                                                    x


Introduction                                                                                                                1

Literature review                                                                                                        4


Materials and methods                                                                                             11

  • Materials for the study                                                                                   11
  • Area of the study                                                                                              11
  • Sampling Area                                                                                                  11
  • Sample used                                                                                                      11
  • Inclusion criteria                                                                                              11
  • Exclusion criteria                                                                                             12
  • Number of Samples                                                                                         12
  • Sample Collection                                                                                            12
  • Time of collection                                                                                            12
  • Site of the wound                                                                                             12
  • Types of wound                                                                                                12
  • Media used for study                                                                                       12
  • Preparation of media                                                                                      13
  • Control                                                                                                               13
  • Inoculation of wound sample                                                                       14
  • Incubation of inoculated plates                                                                   14
  • Subculturing of colonies                                                                                14
  • Preservation of pure cultures                                                                        15
  • Identification of isolates                                                                                 16
  • Microscopic identification                                                                             16
  • Biochemical tests                                                                                             17
  • Antisusceptibility testing                                                                               21


Results                                                                                                                          22

Discussion                                                                                                                   35


Conclusion                                                                                                                  36

Recommendation                                                                                                     37

References                                                                                                                  38

Appendix                                                                                                                    39


The primary function of intact skin is to control microbial population that live on the skin surface and to prevent underlying tissue from becoming colonized and invaded by potential pathogens (Ndip et. al., 2007). Exposure of subcutaneous tissue following a loss of skin integrity (i.e. wound) provides a moist, warm and nutritious environment that is conducive to microbial colonization and proliferation.

A wound is defined as any injury that damages the skin and therefore compromises its protective function. An acute wound is generally caused by external damage to the skin, including abrasions, minor cuts, lacerations, puncture wounds, bites, burns and surgical incisions. A wound is a breakdown in the protective function of the skin; the loss of continuity of epithelium, with or without loss of underlying connective tissue (Leaper and Harding, 1998).

Wounds can be accidental, pathological or post operative. All wounds contain bacteria but majority of the wounds do no get infected. There are many variables that can promote wound infection when there is a discontinuity of skin barrier. This include both host and organism related factors like bacterial load and type, immune competence of host co-morbid like diabetes mellitus, etc (Mir et. al., 2012).

An infection of this breach in continuity constitutes wound infection. Wound infection is thus the presence of pus in a lesion as well as the general or local features of sepsis such as pyrexia, pain and indurations. Wound infections are one of the most common hospital acquired infections and are an important cause of morbidity and account for 70-80% mortality (Gottrup et al., 2005; Wilson et al., 2004).


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