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Development of Jos Tv Broadcasting Studio Reliability Model

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 Development of Jos Tv Broadcasting Studio Reliability Model.

ABSTRACT

The broadcasting stations in Nigeria often encounter sudden failures, which results in loss of signal that causes the station to experience down-time. Causes of the failures could be traced to the issues that range from erratic power supply to degradation in the studio equipment.

Each failure and its consequent down-time influences the reliability of the station. In our environment (Nigeria) reliability does not only depend on the established parameters, instead it includes parameters such as lack of superior equipment and equipment maintainability.

This is the more reason why the definition of reliability for a sensitive system such as the television station in our context is very important. In this work, the Jos television broadcasting station (NTA Jos) was examined in order to developed a reliability model with which the station’s broadcasting studio’s reliability can be defined, at any point, with high precision.

The TV broadcasting studio configuration was therefore determined and modeled analytically. The model was simulated and the simulation results analyzed. Analysis resultshow that failure and restoration rate is expected to influence reliability significantly.

Within the period of reliability assessment, analysis of the model shows that Jos Broadcasting studiois expected to experiences an average equipment failure rate of 0.0001687units per hour with negligible restoration rate that resulted to mean reliability of 0.33%.

It was established also, that the level of equipment redundancy influences reliability to a significant extent.

The modified model with added redundancy as opposed to that representing the studio, showed a reliability disparity of 1.04% indicating a 382 hours gain on down-time.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Approval page- – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – – ii
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – vi
List of Figure – – – – – – – – – – ix
List of Table – – – – – – – – – – x
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study – – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Aim of the Study – – – – – – – – 2
1.3 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – – 2
1.4 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – – 3
1.5 Scope/Limitation of the study – – – – – – – 3
1.6 Methodology of the study – – – – – – – – 4
1.7 Organization of the work. – – – – – – – – 4

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – – – 6
2.2 A typical physical architecture of TV broadcasting Studio Equipment.- – 6
2.2.1 The television studio – – – – – – 9
2.2.2 Studio monitors- – – – – – – – – 9
2.2.3 Headphones and loudspeakers – – – – – – – 9
2.2.4 Studio Microphones. – – – – – – 9
2.2.5 Television camera – – – – – – – – 11
2.3 Studio control rooms (SCR) – – – – – – – 11
2.3.1 The camera control unit (CCU) – – – – – – – 12
2.3.2 Video switcher – – – – – – – – – 12
2.3.3 Audio Consol – – – – – – – – – 12
2.3.4 Master control room (MCR) – – – – – – – 12
2.3.5 Synchronization pulse generator (SPG)- – – – – – 14
2.3.6 Equipment racks – – – – – – – – 16
2.3.7 Time base corrector – – – – – – – – 16
2.3.8 Video and audio distribution amplifier – – – – – – 16
2.3.9 Pulse distribution unit – – – – – – – – 17
2.4 Cable equalizer – – – – – – – – – 17
2.4.1 Video tape recorder (VTRs) – – – – – – – 17
2.4.2 Outside broadcasting van (OB VAN) – – – – – – 17
2.4.3 Studio to transmitter link – – – – – – – 17
2.5 TV signal broadcasting – – – – – – – – 18
2.6 Reliability of component in broadcast station subsystem – – – – 18
2.7. Effects of variation in the reliability of series components – – – – 20
2.7.1Effect of the number of subsystems on the reliability of series system – 22
2.7.2 Effects of components’ reliability variation of a parallel system – – 23
2.7.3Effect of the number of subsystems on the reliability of parallel system – 24
2.7.4 Reliability block diagram – – – – – – – 25
2.7.5 k-out-of-n Parallel System: F-redundancy – – – – – 25
2.8 Failure rate – – – – – – – – – 26
2.8.1 Maintainability – – – – – – – – 26
2.8.2 Restoration rate – – – – – – – – – 27
2.8.3 Exponential distribution – – – – – – – 27

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND RESULT ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 51
4.2 Practical reliability parameters.- – – – – – – 51
4.3 Exclusions of the study – – – – – – – – 51
4.4 Reliability of Jos Broadcasting Studio – – – – – – 53
4.5 Short time reliability assessment – – – – – – – 55
4.5.1 One week reliability assessment- – – – – – – 55
4.5.2 One month reliability assessment- – – – – – – 56
4.6 Model simulation – – – – – – – – – 56
4.6.1 Operational behavior of the models – – – – – – 57
4.7The model – – – – – – – – – – 57
4.7.1The modified model – – – – – – – – 59
4.8 Comparison of behavior – – – – – – – – 61
4.8.1 Reliability of models and subsystems’ reliability analysis – – – 62
4.8.2 Models’ failure rate and subsystems’ reliability analysis. – – – 63
4.9 Models’ restoration rate and subsystem reliability analysis – – – – 65

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF RESULT CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1. Summary of result – – – – – – – – 68
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 68
5.3 Recommendation – – – – – – – – – 69
REFERENCES- – – – – – – – – – 70

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Pleasure and convenience had improved ever since technology advanced into reproducing in our homes the exact video, audio and motion pictures displayed several kilometers away.

The variation and intensity of signal’s continuous succession is simultaneously reproduced in our home over space and time[1]. We will never be able to enjoy the prospect of an efficient broadcasting system if the concept of the reliability of equipment is not adequately considered.

Generally, the subject of reliability has become the fire upon which the flame of security, confidence and trust is developed round the clock.

Engineers began to investigate further into the subject of reliability in the 1950’s taking precedent from the failure of the first American rocket and commercial Jet aircraft: the British de Havilland comet.Life testing was part of this engineering interest. And Landmark contributions were made in this direction [2].

Nevertheless,reliability theory began to be treated as a separate subjectin 1961 [3, 4]. Complex structures have been modeled accurately due to the benefit of physical reliability from the increasing computing power of reliability science [5, 6, 7];so that great strides at designing and developing spacecraft such as the space shuttle was successful.

These achievements resulted from the emphasis on risk management through the instrumentality of maintainability, reliability, system safety and software assurance.

Today, lives are suspended in oblivion under the influence of hospital anesthetic, so that heartbeats and blood pressure could be monitored with high precision equipment, poor reliability of such equipment is death sentence.

Human being and properties are often conveyed to different destination on a very high altitude and velocity using commercial aircraft or through Terrestrial vehicle, all these will never be possible if the associated subsystems of the vehicle system were not reliable[9].

REFERENCES

Rapport, T. S. Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, IEEE Press, New York, 2005. [2]Epstein and Sabel M. “Sequential life testing in the exponential case” In Annals of mathematical

statistics 1955 paper 26(1) pp82-93 doi 101214 modified 2013

Richard E. Barlow, Frank ProschanMathematical Theory of Reliability (Classics in Applied Mathematics)January 1, 1987 Published by Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics ISBN-13: 978-0898713695 ISBN-10: 0898713692 reviewed 2013

Francisco J. Samaniego. System Signature and Their Application in Engineering Reliability in international series in operations research & management science vol 110 pp 1-5. eISBN 9780387717975. 17TH October 2007.

IEEE standard methodology for reliability prediction and assessment for electronic systems and equipment 1413-1998 IEEE, 1998

IEEE guide for selecting and using reliability predictions based on IEEE1413 #1413.1-2002,IEEE, 2002

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