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Assessment of Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Sokoto State, Nigeria

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Assessment of Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Sokoto State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

The uncertainty about future climate changes, low resource base of semiarid tropics and the dominant traditional methods of adaptation in the study areas has made it imperative to invest in adaptation in order for nations to be fully prepared to cope with adverse changes with possible increase in severe consequences.

Hence this research aimed at assessing farmers adaptation strategies to climate change in Sokoto State. This was achieved by a set of objectives which include to characterize the climate of the study area, assess the awareness of farmers on climate change and examine the impact of climate change on agriculture as well as adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the study area.

Rainfall and temperature data of the study area for a period of 30 years (1986 – 2015) were obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMET) in Sokoto state and used to characterize the climate of the study area.

Total annual rainfall, length of rainy season, onset, cessation, mean maximum and minimum temperature (important parameters to plant growth and development) were derived using time series analysis.

A total of 384 close ended questionnaire were used to generate data to address other objectives such as assessment of farmers awareness to climate change in the study area, examine the perceived effect of climate change on crop yield and animal production in the study area, identify the adaptation strategies to climate change adopted by farmers in the study area and examine factors hindering adaptation of modern techniques in the study area.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Page
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – v
Table of Content – – – – – – – – vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – x
List of Figures – – – – – – – – xii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – xiii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem – – – – – 3
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study – – – – – 8
1.4 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – 8
1.5 Justification of the Study – – – – – – 9
CHAPTER TWO:
2.0 Conceptual Framework and Literature Review – – – 11
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 11
2.2 Concept of Climate Change – – – – – – 11
2.2.1 Causes of climate change – – – – – – 13
2.2.2 Types of green house gases and their occurrence – – – 16
2.2.3 The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere – – – 19
2.2.4 Impacts of climate change – – – – – – 20 2.3 Climate Change Awareness – – – – – – 25
CHAPTER THREE:
3.0 Study Area and Methodology – – – – – 80
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 80
CHAPTER FOUR:
4.0 Result and discussion – – – – – – 92
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 92
4.2 Socio-demographic Characteristics of the Respondents – – 92
4.2.1 Sex of the respondents – – – – – – 92
4.2.2 Age of the respondents – – – – – – 93
4.2.3 Marital status of the respondents – – – – – 94
4.2.4 Educational status of the respondents – – – – – 95
4.2.5 Duration of residency in the study area – – – – 96
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 122
5.2 Summary of Major Findings – – – – – – 122
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 123
5.4 Recommendations – – – – – – – 125
REFERENCES – – – – – – – 127
APPENDIX I – – – – – – – 147

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study
Climate change is a long term shift in the climate of a specific location, region or planet. The shift is measured by changes in features associated with average weather, such as temperature, wind patterns and precipitation.

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] (2007) in the fourth assessment report, climate change is a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (using statistical tests) by the changes in the mean of temperature, precipitation and wind pattern and that persists for an extended period typically decades or longer.

Climate change is, therefore, the statistically significant deviation or shift from the average weather conditions of climatic elements.

Climate change poses a serious danger to livelihoods and food security as well as aggravating risks and vulnerabilities through the incidence of environmental disaster and extreme weather events (Umar, 2012).

As a result of this, global attention is being drawn to the issue of climate change as an environmental problem threatening the survival of the entire human race. According to Nigerian Environmental Study/Action Team [NEST] (2004), every part of the earth will be affected by climate change but the degree to which such impact will cause damage will differ depending on demographic circumstances, capacity to withstand the impact and the nature of the economy.

The report noted that developing countries will be the most vulnerable to the impact of climate change due to low capacity to reduce the magnitude of economic, social and human effects of adverse weather condition.

REFERENCES

Abaje, F.A., Sawa, B.A., Iguisi, E.O. and Ibrahim, A.A. (2015). Impact of Climate Change and Adaptations Strategies in Rural Communities of Kaduna State. www.researchgate.net/publication.

Abubakar, I.L. (2010) Adaptive Strategies Development by Local Farmers to Cope with Climate Change: A Case Study of Jibia Local Government Area, Katsina State.

Unpublished Undergraduate Project, Submitted to the Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, A.B.U., Zaria.

Action Aid International (AAI, 2006). Climate Change and Smallholder Farmers in Malawi. Understanding Poor People Experience on Climate Change Adaptation.

Malawi Ministry of Natural Resources Report. Pp. 25.

Adebayo, A.A., Onu J.I. Adebayo, E.F. and Anyanwu, S.O. (2015), Farmer‟s Awareness, Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies in Dustin-ma Local Government Area of Katsina State, Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Geology, 6(2), 103 – 112. Canadian Centre of Science and Education.

Adedoyin, R.A., Mbada, C.E., Awofolu, O.O. and Oyebami, O.M. (2005). The Influence of Socio-economic Status on Casual Blood Pressure of Adult Nigerians.

European Journal of Cardiovascular Preventional Rehabilitation.

Adefolalu, D.O. (1993). World Meteorological Organization. Lecture Series 1: 1 – 4.

Adefolalu, D.O. (2007). Climate Change and Economic Sustainability in Nigeria, a Paper Presented at the International Conference on Climate Change and Economic Sustainability held at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Enugu, Nigeria. 12 – 14 June, 2007.

Adejuwon, J.O., Balogun, E.E. and Adejuwon, S.A. (1990). On the Annual and Seasonal Patterns of Rainfall Fluctuations in Sub-Sahara West Africa, International Journal of Climatology. 10(8): 839 – 848.

Adejuwon, S.A. (2004). Impact of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Crop Yield in Nigeria, Contributed Paper to Stakeholders Working on Assessment of Impact and Adaptation to Climate Change (AIACC): 2-8.

Adesina, A.A. and J.B. Forson (1995). Farmer‟s Perception and Adoption of New Agricultural Technology: Evidence from Analysis in Burkina Faso and Guinea, West Africa. Agricultural Economics 13: 1 – 9.

Adesina, F.A. and Odekunle, T.O. (2011). Climate Change and Adaptation in Nigeria: Some Background to Nigeria‟s Response. International Conference on Environmental and Agriculture Engineering IPCBEE Vol. 15. IACSIT Press, Singapore.

CSN Team.

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