Biodeterioration of Natural and Artifical Stone : Current School News

Biodeterioration Of Natural And Artifical Stone

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Biodeterioration Of Natural And Artificial Stone


Stone is one of the most intensely studied materials in conservation.  Understanding the deterioration of stone requires knowledge of various mineralogical and physical characteristics and of stone weathering response in different climates and environments.  The alteration and weathering of stone are affected by natural and artificial elements, physical, chemical, or biological damaging factors.

Biodeterioration of stone is coupled with environmental factors that induce the decomposition of stone structure, either directly or indirectly as a form of catalysis.  Many elements contribute to the deterioration of stone monuments and others objects of cultural value such as pagodas and the status of Buddha.  This report concentrates on the action of biodeterioration factors including bacteria, algae, and higher plants.


Title page                                                             i

Certification Page                                                    ii

Dedication                                                            iii

Acknowledgment v

Abstract                                                                vi

Table of content                                                  vii


1.0  Introduction

  • Key Issues
  • Aims
  • Objectives


2.0  Literature Review


3.0  Causes of Biodeterioration

  • Effects of biodeterioration
  • Biodeterioration and Its Damage in Trophies
  • Environmental Conditions and their Effects on Biodeterioration


4.0  Conclusion and Recommendation

  • Recommendation
  • Conclusion



Biodeterioration, defined as damage caused by living organisms such as fungi and termites, endangers cultural property all around the world.  The destruction results in enormous economic loss” (Khadelwa, 2003) and the irreversible cultural and artistic loss of the information of the objects affected.

The loss is greatest among materials derived from plants and animals since the food value of the cellulose or protein that comprise these materials makes them particularly vulnerable to biological attack (Allsop et al, 2004).  As a result wooden objects and structures, bamboo artifacts, manuscripts, books, textiles leather, paper, basketry and various types of paintings are most at risk.

Stone and masonry are also vulnerable, however, and stone monuments and outdoor sculptures may become severely damaged.  Cultural property is even more endangered.  While kept under the adverse environmental conditions that invite biodeterioration, typically hot and humid surroundings.

The importance of microbial activity in the alteration and deterioration of stone and concrete walls has been frequently neglected.  However, active biofilms are found anywhere where there are microorganisms and humidity and a complex biofilm system can develop in external walls of buildings.  The microbiota on building stones represents a complex ecosystem that develops in various ways.


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