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Food Hygiene Practices Among Food Handlers in Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U.), Zaria

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Food Hygiene Practices Among Food Handlers in Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U.), Zaria.


Food hygiene is a subject of great concern to anyone who cares about eating healthy and staying alive because the import of food borne illness can occasionally be grave.

This research work was carried out among food handlers in Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U.), Zaria, Kaduna state of Nigeria; it sought to assess the level of knowledge of food hygiene among food handlers, attitude of food handlers towards hygiene, practice of food hygiene by food handlers.

The nature and frequency of medical examination(s) the handlers undergo and to also to screen the food handlers to detect those who might be harbouring Salmonella species in their alimentary canal, an organism that can cause food poisoning under favourable conditions.


Title page i

Declaration ii

Certification iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgement v

Abstract vi

Table of content viii

List of Abbreviations xi

List of Tables xii

List of Figures xiii

List of Appendices xiv

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Definition of terms 3

1.2 Problem statement 5

1.3 Justification 6 1.4

Aim and objectives 7

Chapter two

2.0 Literature review (Introduction) 9

2.01 Food hygiene 9

2.1 Food handlers‟ knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene; a review of literatures 10

Chapter Three
3.0 Methodology 37
3.1 Background information on the study area 37

3.2 Study design 38

3.3 Study population 38

3.3.1 Inclusion criteria 38

3.3.2 Exclusion criteria 38

3.4 Sample size 39

Chapter four

4.0 Results 43

Chapter five

5.0 Discussion 59

Chapter six

6.1 Summary 67

6.2 Conclusion 68

6.3 Recommendations 68

References 70

Appendices 73


Food hygiene practices is a subject of wide scope and it is a broad term used to describe the preservation and preparation of foods in a manner that ensures the food is safe for human consumption.

Food hygiene deals with the prevention of contamination of food stuffs at all stages of production, collection, transportation, storage, preparation, sale and consumption.

Foodborne illness is defined as a disease, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. This process of kitchen safety includes proper storage of food items prior to use, maintaining a clean environment when preparing the food, and making sure that all serving dishes are clean and free of bacteria that could lead to some type of contamination.

The food storage aspect of food hygiene is focused on maintaining the quality of the food so that it will be fresh when used in different recipes. Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illnesses.

This includes the number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food can transmit diseases from one person to the other as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning.


1. Malcolm T, Bronwyn H. What is food hygiene? Global Food Safety Consultants. 2005. Website: Accessed: 19th Feb. 2011.

2. World Health Organization. Food safety and food borne illness. Updated: March 2007. Website: Accessed: 19th Feb. 2011.

3. World Health Organization. Recommended International Code of Practice. General Principle of Food Hygiene. 1999. Website: Accessed: 19th Feb. 2011.

4. Alapati A. Food Poisoning: Definition, Symptoms, Signs, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention & Lawyers. Health Chrome. The Bantam Medical Dictionary. 6th ed. Website: and Retrieved on 11th June, 2011.

5. Glyn W. The Burden of Food Borne Illness. Food Safety C & G International Inc. 2010 Aug 17;246. Accessed on 8th Mar. 2011 from

6. Akunyili D. 20,000 die annually of food poisoning. Accessed from website on 8th Mar. 2011.

7. Omemu AM, Aderoju ST. Food safety knowledge and practices of street vendors in the city of Abeokuta, Nigeria. Food control. 2008 Apr;19(4):396-402.

8. Food poisoning kills 10 Nigerian teachers. The Nigerian Tribune, 1st June, 2011. Accessed from on 7th June, 2011.

9. Doyle MP, Erickson MC. Reducing the carriage of foodborne pathogens in livestock and poultry. Retrieved on 9th June, 2011 from

10. Akonor PT, Akonor MA. Food safety knowledge: the case of domestic food handlers in Accra. Eur J of Nutri & Food Safety 2013;3(3):99-111. Available from: URL:

CSN Team.

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