Nigerians and Politeness Expression in the English Language : Current School News

Nigerians and Politeness Expression in the English Language

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Nigerians and Politeness Expression in the English Language.

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research farm of the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria Nsukka to compare the activity of Cassia alata leaf extract with two synthetic chemical fungicides applied as seed treatment on the field performance of Nsukka yellow pepper.

Four accessions of Nsukka yellow pepper seeds were treated with Apron plus 50 Ds (34% furathiocarb + 10% metalaxyl + 6%  carboxine) and Thiram (tetramety1 thioperoxydicarbonic diamide) each at the rate of 30g/100kg of seeds while Cassia alata extracts was used for treatment at the rate of 1ml/100g of seeds.

The seedlings were transplanted into the field 42 days after planting. Data were collected on agronomic parameters. Cassia alata compared favourably well with the synthetic chemical fungicide in all the agronomic parameters measured.

There were no significant differences between the effects of Cassia alata and the synthetic fungicides on plant height at 50% anthesis, number of branches and number of days to first anthesis.

Cassia alata produced better result and differed significantly (p=0.05) with the synthetic chemicals in quantitative character, such as number of leaves at 50% anthesis and number of flowers per plant.

The leaf abscission rate was significantly (p=0.05) lower in Cassia alata treated plants (10.1%) compared with Apron plus 50 Ds (10.32%) or Thiram (11.79%). Cassia alata also reduced the number of days to 50% anthesis and number of days to first fruiting (111.7 and 112.7).

Evidences in this study show that, Cassia alata extract has potential as seed dressing pesticide for Nsukka yellow pepper seeds.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – – – – – -ii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – -iii
Table of content – – – – – – – iv
List of tables – – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – vi
Introduction – – – – – 1
Literature review – – – – -4
Materials and Methods – – – – – – – – 10
Preparation of Cassia alata leaf extract – – – – — – – – – 11
Seed treatment – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 11
Nursery – – – – – – -12
Field layout – – – – – – – – – 12
Data collection – — – – – – – – -13
Results – – – – – – -14
Discussion and conclusion – – – – – 39
References – – – – – – – – 42

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

Nsukka yellow pepper belongs to the Genus Capsicum in the family Solaneacae. There are about 100 species of Capsicum. They vary in their growth forms, flowering time, fruit shape, size and pungency.

Most member of the genus Capsicum originated from wild species except C. anomalum which originated in the new world (Eshbaugh 1980, Macleod et al, 1982).

Pepper is propagated by seed and attains a height of 42.0 cm to 72.5 cm, when grown as an annual crop but may attain a height of 130 cm to 160 cm as perennials.

Pepper is valued directly as food for its pungency, colour and aroma and indirectly for its products in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. In many communities, the Nsukka yellow pepper is highly cherished for its appetizing aroma.

Pepper (Capsicum annum), is an important cash crop but it is affected by many fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. West, (1938) isolated Collectricum capsici, which causes fruit rot from Capsicum annum and Capsicum frutescence.

Recently, many fungi organisms have been isolated from certain crop seeds. For example, IIoba (1980) established the presence of Trichoderma padwicki and Drechslera oryzae in Nigerian rice seeds. Leveilula taurica (lev) Arn is the main causal agent of powdery mildew on pepper plant (Braun 1980).

TABLE OF CONTENTS

REFERENCES 

Adamu S.U., Ado. S.G., Eruofor P. G. and Olawrewaju J.D. (1994). Variations in the fruit of pepper, Nigerian Journal of Horticultural sciences 2:10-14.

Alegbejo, M.D. (1996). Epidemiology of pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV: Relationship between pepper transplanting date, number of Aphids trapped, the incidence and severity of PVMV, Journal of Agricultural Technology 4(2): 63-68.

ASARECA (2004): Viral diseases pose a threat to pepper growing. In: Agriforum; a quarterly Newsletter of the Association for Strenghtening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa. Http://www.asareca.org/agriforum/articles 18/pepper- virus/html.

Borget M. (1993). Spice plants. The Macmillian pres Ltd. London. Pp. 114.

Bosland P.W. and Votava E.J. (2000). Peppers: vegetable and spice capsicums. CABI publishing wallingtod. Pp. 204.

Braun, U. (1980). Genus Leveillula. A Primary Study Nova Hedwigia 32:565-582.

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