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Serodiagnosis of Human African Trypanosomosis among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients in Ankpa General Hospital, Kogi State

Serodiagnosis of Human African Trypanosomosis among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients in Ankpa General Hospital, Kogi State.

Abstract

Human African Trypanosomosis is a serious disease of man and animal.
The present study was aimed at investigating the occurrence of Human African Trypanosomosis among Human Immunodeficiency Virus patients in Ankpa General Hospital, Kogi State.

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection decreases the specificities of antibody detection test for HIV diagnosis. Human African Trypanosomosis symptoms are nonspecific, variable and inconsistent, and alone are insufficient for diagnosis.
Moreover, HAT symptoms can be confused with those of malaria, enteric fever, tubercular meningitis and HIV. Ethical clearance was obtained from the State Ministry of Health.
Blood samples were collected from HIV patients at the Ankpa General Hospital after their consent was sought.
Subjects to be sampled were selected using convenience sampling with the sex, age and occupation of the HIV patients recorded. Four hundred and sixty five blood samples were collected from HIV patients.
They were screened serologically using Card agglutination test for T.b gambiense (CATT) and parasitologically using the wet mount and haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT).
The overall sero-prevalence of HAT in Ankpa General Hospital among HIV patients was 3.01% (14/465). Sero-prevalence among the females and males was 3.60% (12/333) and 1.52% (2/132) respectively.

Introduction

1.1 Background of Study
Human African trypanosomosis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease. The parasites are transmitted to humans by the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae), which is found in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Sleeping sickness is considered as a re-emerging and neglected disease (Cattand et al., 2001). At the end of the 1990s, and up to 2001, 60 million people were estimated to be living in high risk infection areas and that between 300,000 to 500,000 people were infected (WHO, 2001).
However, the epidemiological situation has improved notably over the last four years due to the increase of surveillance activities.
Therefore, it is currently estimated that the number of new cases per year has fallen to 17,500 and that the accumulative rate stands between 50,000 and 70,000 cases worldwide (WHO, 2006).
In the past few years the reported number of cases of sleeping sickness has again reduced due to increased control measures, although the exact number of cases is uncertain because of poor  health services in most of the affected areas (Brun, 2010).
Two subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei can infect humans. T. b.gambiense causes a generally chronic form of sleeping sickness in West and Central Africa. T. b. rhodesiense, found in Eastern and Southern Africa.

References

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