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Influence of Students’ Personal Factors and their Involvement in Examination Misconduct


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Influence of Students’ Personal Factors and their Involvement in Examination Misconduct

ABSTRACT

The study investigated influence of students’ personal factors and their involvement in examination misconduct in Nsit Atai Local Government Area. The study adopted ex-post-factor design.

The population of the study consisted of all the JSS3 students in public secondary schools in Nsit Atai Local Government Area which number was 5,857. A sample of 880 Junior Secondary three students was used for the study, in which 30% per school was selected from ten (10) schools. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

The researcher constructed an instrument called “personal factors and tendency towards involvement in examination misconduct”. Questionnaire containing 50 items was used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and were tested at .05 alpha level of significance.

The three null hypotheses formulated were rejected. Findings revealed significant relationship between students’ studying habits, students’ self concepts, students’ poor academic performance and their tendency towards involvement in examination misconduct.

Based on these findings, it was recommended among others, that teachers and counselors should give serious attention to educational counselling services whereby students are counseled on effective study techniques.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Dedication       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       i

Declaration      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       ii

Approval Page  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       iii

Acknowledgements –       –       –       –       –       –       –       iv

Abstract   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       v

Table of Contents     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       vi

List of Tables   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study –       –       –       –       –       1

1.2   Statement of the Problem –       –       –       –       –       4

1.3   Purpose of the Study               –       –       –       –       –       6

1.4   Research Questions –       –       –       –       –       –       6

1.5   Research Hypotheses       –       –       –       –       –       7

1.6   Significance of the Study –       –       –       –       –       7

1.7   Limitations of the Study  –       –       –       –       –       8

1.8   Delimitation of the Study –       –       –       –       –       8

1.9   Definition of Operational Terms       –       –       –       –       9

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1   Theoretical Framework    –       –       –       –       –       10

2.1.1        Theory of Needs      –       –       –       –       –       –       10

2.1.2        Theory of Reasoned Action     –       –       –       –       13

2.1.3 Attitude Stimulus Theory        –       –       –       –       –       16

2.2   Students’ Study Habits    –       –       –       –       –       18

2.3   Dimensions of Examination Misconduct   –     –       19

2.3.1        Mass Cheating –       –       –       –       –       –       –       20

2.3.2        Super Prints    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       20

2.3.3        ECOMOG –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       20

2.4   Student’s Self-Concept and Involvement in

Examination Misconduct –       –       –       –       –       21

2.5   Poor Academic Performance of Student and

Involvement in Examination Misconduct –       –       25

2.5.1        Individual Difference Influencing Academic

Performance     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       25

2.5.2        Non-Cognitive Factor      –       –       –       –       –       26

2.5.3        Motivation      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       26

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

3.1   Research Design      –       –       –       –       –       –       28

3.2   Area of the Study     –       –       –       –       –       –       29

3.3   Population of the Study   –       –       –       –       –       29

3.4   Sample and Sampling Technique    –       –       –       30

3.5   Research Instrumentation               –       –       –       –       30

3.6   Reliability of Instrument  –       –       –       –       –       31

3.7   Validation of Instrument  –       –       –       –       –       32

3.8   Administration of Instrument  –       –       –       –       32

3.9   Method of Data Analysis  –       –       –       –       –       33

CHAPTER FOUR:    DATA ANALYSIS, RESEARCH AND DISCUSSION

4.1   Data Presentation and Analysis of Research

Questions        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       34

4.2   Testing of Hypotheses      –       –       –       –       –       36

4.3   Major Findings –       –       –       –       –       –       –       40

4.4   Discussion of Findings    –       –       –       –       –       40

4.4.1 Relationship between Studying Habits and

Students’ Tendency towards Involvement

in Examination Misconduct    –       –       –       –       40

4.2.2 Relationship between Students’ Self-Concept

and their Tendency towards Involvement in

Examination Misconduct         –       –       –       –       –       41

4.4.3 Relationship between Students’ Poor

Academic Performance and their Tendency

towards Involvement In Examination Misconduct-  42

CHAPTER FIVE:     SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

 5.1   Summary –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       43

5.2   Limitations of the Study  –       –       –       –       –       45

5.3   Conclusion      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       45

5.4   Implication for Guidance and Counselling       –       –       46

5.5   Recommendations   –       –       –       –       –       –       47

5.6   Suggested Areas for Further Studies        –       –       –       48

APPENDIX

REFERENCES


INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

  Education serves as a prime instrument in the development of Nigeria but the issue of examination misconduct has led to the problem of this system.

The main purpose of examination is for certification achievement, selection for educational and employment opportunities, quality control of the curriculum and its delivery, monitoring of educational standards and the assessment of school effectiveness.

However, examination still remain the best tool for an objective assessment and evaluation of what learners have achieved after a period of studying. According to Fayombo, (2004), any action that undermines examination posses a great threat to the validity and reliability of examination results and certification.

The first publicity reported case of examination misconduct in Nigeria occurred in 1914 when there was leakage of question papers in senior Cambridge local examination. Since then there has been several cases reported but within the recent times occurred in 2009.

If we consider also the cases of examination misconduct which occurred over the years within our school system as well as examinations conducted by bodies such as JAMB, NABTEB, NAEC, WAEC, NECO, NTI, and other professional bodies, it could be concluded that examination misconduct is a common daily experience.


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