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Teachers’ Motivational Strategies and Academic Performance in Government among Secondary School Students

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Teachers’ Motivational Strategies and Academic Performance

in Government among Secondary School Students

Abstract

The study “Teachers motivational strategies and students academic performance in Government among secondary school students in Ikono Local Government Area” was carried out by me.

Two research questions and their corresponding hypothesis were formulated to guide this study.

The study adopted an experimental research design. Five hundred and seventy seven (577) students formed the population of the study.

A simple random technique was adopted to select two hundred (200) respondents for the study. Government Achievement Test was the major instrument used for the data collection.

The data generated from the instrument was analyzed using independent t-test statistics.

The result show that there is significant difference between academic performance of students taught Government by teachers who give frequent reward to their students and those who do not give.

It also revealed that there is significance difference in the academic performance of students whose test scripts are marked and those whose test scripts are not marked and returned in Government.

The study therefore recommended that Government teachers should increase students’ academic achievement by using different motivational strategy such as teacher’s rewards, marking and returning test scripts etc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      i

Dedication      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      ii

Acknowledgement  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iii

Abstract –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      v

Table of contents    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study –      –      –      –      1
  • Statement of the study – –      –      –      –      4
  • Purpose of the study –      –      –      –      –      6
  • Significance of the study –      –      –      –      –      6
  • Research questions       –      –      –      –      –      8
  • Research hypotheses –      –      –      –      –      8
  • Delimitation of the study –      –      –      –      –      9
  • Limitation of the study –      –      –      –      –      9
  • Definition of the terms –      –      –      –      –      10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1  Concept of teachers’ motivational strategies        –      12

2.2  Teachers’ Reward and Students’ Academic

performance in Government  –      –      –      –      –      14

2.3  Marking and Returning of Scripts and students

Academic performance in Government  –      –      17

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS

3.1  Area of the Study   –      –      –      –      –      –      21

3.2  Research Design     –      –      –      –      –      –      22

3.3  Population of the Study  –      –      –      –      –      23

3.4  Sample and Sampling technique    –      –      –      23

3.5  Instrument for Data Collection      –      –      –      24

3.6  Validation of the Instrument  –      –      –      –      24

3.7  Administration of the Instrument  –      –      –      25

3.8  Scoring of the Instrument     –      –      –      –      25

3.9  Method of Data Analysis        –      –      –      –      –      26

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1  Data Analysis  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      27

4.2  Discussion of findings    –      –      –      –      –      30

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1  Summary –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      32

5.2  Recommendation    –      –      –      –      –      –      33

5.3  Conclusion      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      34

5.4  Suggestion for Further Studies      –      –      –      35

References

Appendix

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the Study

Motivation is a factor in the realization of the objectives of education in Nigerian secondary schools. Inadequate use of motivation by teachers therefore may go a long way in decreasing students’ interest in learning Government.

Patrick (2013) refers to motivation as an act that causes a person to act or do something. Olabaji (2007) views motivation as an incentive which incites, inspires and promotes the desire for the individual learning.

It is also make the study interesting to students. The learning environment and teachers’ motivation upon knowledge development needs attention in the field of government teaching and learning.

What happens in the class room between the teacher and learners (motivation-wise) has huge psychological implication on student’s academic performance and opportunity to learn.

The concept of teachers’ motivation on students’ academic performance remains a vital topic throughout all levels of education.

Various approaches which a teacher use in motivating students have been articulated in education circles but educators are still coming to terms with best-fit models to inspire students in classroom settings.

According to Alexandra (2000), motivational strategies could arouse interest, enthusiasm, and regulate the student’s behaviour in order to perform different tasks with interest for attainment of educational goals.

Critically, teachers’ motivation can be classified into intrinsic motivation and interest in activities pressure. It is the foundation of having enjoyment in performing activity without any external incentive.

Whereas individuals who are extrinsically motivated need reward which can be in the form of grades and marks in examination or test. Achievement motivation is concerned with achieving the successful outcomes at the end of the process.

According to Oziki (2012) availability of teaching/learning resources and teachers’ motivation enhances the effectiveness of schools as these are basic things that can bring about good academic performance in the students, in teaching-learning process with the help of the teachers’ motivational strategy can maintain, control and arouse interest of the learners.

A leaner is motivated by the support of his concern with the ongoing activities and interest. In education, motivation is implemented in terms of what and how students learn about the subject matters.

Students’ learning process becomes more successful by using different motivational strategies. In the teaching-learning process, teachers’ motivation is used to encourage and boost the students’ ambition so that they can put more effort in their learning process.

Motivation in education is the degree of self esteem to processes and sense of value to determine how well the student can improve and develop their learning which can exploit their potential (Halonen and Santrock, 2009).

As opined by Sprint (2002), teachers can utilize successful strategies and tactics to make learning effective because motivation plays a significant role to arouse the students’ interest toward the learning process.

At all educational levels it is important for instructors to understand the potential value of motivational practices.

This is because student’s engagement remains an important concern among educators.

Although, it is believed that the reward for the teachers is in heaven, government teachers may use position reinforcement because it plays a significant role in achieving the students’ academic performance.

However, this study therefore seek to determine how teachers’ motivational strategies influence students’ academic performance in Government in Secondary Schools in Ikono Local Government Area.

REFERENCES

Aghenta, 3. A. (2002). Strategies for reform vocation education in Nigeria, evaluation and development 52 95-101.

Alexander, P. A. (2000). Toward a model of academic development: schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. Educational Researcher, 29, 28-33.

Anastasi, A. & Urbina, S. (2007). Psychological Testing Second Impression.

Delhi: Pearson Education Inc. and Dorling Kindersley (India) Publishing Inc.

Balogun, N. (2001). Validity of Measurement, Continuous Assessment and Psychological Testing. Calabar: Rapid Educational Publisher (Nig.) Ltd.

Barnard, H. W. (2010). Psychology of learning and teaching New York:

McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Chniwe. N. (2009). Code of Practice on Taught Programme and Module Assessment and Feedback. Journal of Social Science Teachers Association of Nigeda, 24(’land 2) 59-65.

Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2011). Schools as developmental contexts during adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 225—24 1

Halonen, 3. S. & Santrock, D. F. (2009). Psychology context and application, g-d edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Kim, T. (2000). “Intrinsic Motivation”: Teachers Net Gazelte Vol. 1 No. 6.

Kolawole, E. B. (2004). Sex differences in Academic performance in Science subjects in a Nigeria tertiary institution. Ado-Ekiti:

Olabaji, M. 0. (2007). Concerning the secondary education curriculum in educational, innovation and information. Enugu: Paper Mill Press.

Oziki, A. O. (2012). A handbook on school administration and management Lagos: Macmillan Nigerian publisher limited.

Patrick, H. D. (2013). Teachers’ Motivation on students’ performance in Soda! Sciences in government secondary schools. Makurdi: Asabi Press.

Sprint, N. A. (2002). Educational Psychology, a development approach, t edition. New York: Rutledge Printing Press.

Piritrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 385—407.

Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology,25, 54-67.

Oluwatayo, J. A. & Fatoba, 3. 0. (2010). Effects of Evaluative Feedback on Performance and Retention of Secondary School Students in Science. Faculty of Education, University of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Yonder, W. I. & Janini, D. (2007). Teacher Testing: A Status Report. The Teacher Educator, 23(1): 23-25.

CSN Team.

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