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Urban Management Challenges for Water Supply IN Peripheral Settlements of Kaduna Metropolis

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Urban Management Challenges for Water Supply IN Peripheral Settlements of Kaduna Metropolis.


The need for water cannot be overemphasized as water is crucial for healthy living. Despite this, access to portable water in many urban areas still remain a huge challenge.

Giving that attempts are being made to surmount water problems of cities, little is being done to overcome water problems of peripheral settlements.

Most studies on water delivery have rather emphasize the urban challenge, combined both core and periphery which has fallen short of reporting the difficulty residents of periphery are faced with in order to meet daily water needs.

The research narrows to investigating water supply and demand characteristics resulting to urban management challenges as a result of water supply problems of these areas.

Data collection and analysis was conducted in 70% of the identified peripheral settlements of Kaduna metropolis. A sample size of 0.5% of 61,182 household constituted 305 questionnaires, from which only 269 were retrieved for analysis.

Results revealed poor access to pipe borne water and over dependence on boreholes and wells, which lacks the capacity of supplying the required water quantity. Attempts to meet needs is responsible for patronage of water vendors with high cost and health implications.

The hope to secure pipe borne supply from the metropolis is far-fetched as the KSWB lacks the capacity to meet water demand of the metropolitan core let alone the periphery. To address the water supply shortage of peripheral settlements, there is the need to plan and manage new  growth points.

Also to ensure that commercial borehole operators are organized to supply water to existing peripheral settlements at regulated price; and the capacities of existing water treatment plants serving the metropolis be increased to cater for the excess population of the core as well as the periphery.

Pipe borne supplies to peripheral settlements should commence with those that currently have provision for supply.


Declaration i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract vii
Table of Contents vii
List of tables xi
List of figures xiii


1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of Research problem 2
1.2 Aim 4
1.3 Objectives 4
1.4 Scope and Limitation 4
1.5 The study Area 5
1.5.1 The Kaduna Peripheral Settlements 10


2.0 Concept of Peripheral Settlements 15
2.0.1 Peripheral Settlements 15
2.0.2 Processes of Urban Peripheral Growth 16
2.1 Concept of Urban Management 17
2.2 Relationship between Urban Management and Water Supply 20
2.2.1 Process of Urban Management 21 Planning 21 Coordination 25 Resourcing 26 Developing 27 Operating 27 Maintaining 27
2.3 Urban Management approaches to water supply in peripheral settlements 28
2.3.1 The Mugabi Methodology 29
2.3.2 The Choguil Model 29
2.3.3 The Schiller and Droste Model 30
2.4 Implications of Poor Access to Urban Water Supply 31
2.5 Case Studies of Water Supply Strategies to Peripheral Settlements 33
2.5.1 Water supply in peripheral settlements of Uganda 33
2.5.2 Sida’s Strategy for Water supply in peripheral settlements 33
2.5.3 Water Utility partnership (WUP) Strategy for water supply in peripheral
Settlements 34
2.6 The Pipe Borne Water Supply Programme of Kaduna Metropolis 39


3.0 Methodology 40
3.1 Data Required and Sources 40
3.2 Sample Frame 42
3.3 Sample Size 44
3.4 Sampling Methods 44
3.5 Methods of Data Collection 45
3.5.1 Questionnaires Administration 45
3.5.2 Oral Interview 45
3.6 Data Collation, Analysis and Presentation 46


4.0 Water supply Characteristics and pattern 47
4.1 Sources of Water supply in Peripheral Settlements 47
4.1.1 Pipe borne water supply 49
4.1.2 Borehole water supply 51
4.1.3 Water supply through Dug Wells 55
4.1.4 Rivers and streams 55
4.1.5 Vendors as suppliers of water 55
4.1.6 Time Spent to access water 59
4.2 Demand Characteristics and pattern 59
4.2.1 Pattern of Demand by Households 60
4.2.2 Household Daily Expenditure on water 60
4.2.3 Presence of Queues to fetch water 62
4.3 Problems of Water supply in the peripheral settlements 64
4.3.1 Inadequate Supplies 64
4.3.2 High Expenditure on water 67
4.3.3 Unreliable supply of water supply 69
4.3.4 Inadequate water consumption 70
4.3.5 Time Wastage in accessing Water 70


5.0 Prospects for Sustainable water supply 71
5.1 Challenges 71
5.1.1 Poor Physical Conditions 71
5.1.2 Poor Management of Metropolitan Growth and Development 71
5.1.3 High Water demand and poor supply pattern 72
5.1.4 Water Suppliers Challenges 73
5.1.5 Environmental Challenges 74
5.2 Opportunities 75
5.2.1 Interest for pipe Borne water supply 75
5.2.2 Regularity of water bill to areas with Pipe borne supply 78
5.2.3 Willingness to pay for pipe borne water supply 78


6.0 Introduction 79
6.1 Summary of findings 79
6.2 Recommendations 81
6.2.1 Specific Recommendations 81
6.2.2 General Recommendations 83
6.3 Conclusion 84
References 86


Cities worldwide are endowed with basic infrastructure, this advantage creates the pull to cities when compared to other forms of human settlements.

The pull to cities creates peripheral settlements which look onto the city for supplies. Cities of the developed countries are better serviced with infrastructure compared to cities in developing countries.

Such cities are better because of the organized system of infrastructure planning and delivery, which is conceived at the urban level and infrastructure needs are usually properly identified, then Infrastructure Delivery Plans are prepared in conformity with the proposals of the city plan.

In most cases, attention is given to the mother city without much concern to what is happening at the fringe, where new growth points exist.

Devas (1993) observed that the core–periphery dichotomy has implications being that the availability of infrastructure and services can influence productivity, health, income and employment.

Access to a range of basic infrastructure (e.g. water, sanitation, drainages and roads) is also an indicator of community wellbeing (Solo et al, 1993).

Similarly, improving water and sanitation delivery decreases the incidence of illnesses and expenditure on health related matters. A peripheral settlement is described as the newly urbanized area of the city, which lie on the fringe.


Abdu, Y. (1998). Planning and Management for sustainable urban water supply: A case study of Damaturu. An unpublished M.Sc thesis, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, A.B.U., Zaria

Abdullahi, M. A. (1990) Water for sustainable Development: Trends and Perspective. A paper delivered at the National Conference on water for sustainable Development.

Acioly, C. Jnr (2003) Urban Management: The Meaning and Scope of Urban Management: an introductory note”, in Azza Sirry (2003), ‘Urban Management Practices in Secondary Cities in Egypt: the case of Belbeis’, Elias Modern Publishing House, Cairo, Egypt. 202003_Meaning %20of%20Urban%20Management.pdf

Aderigbe, S.A., Awoyemi, A.O and Osagbemi, G. K. (2008) Availability, Adequacy and Quality of Water supply in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. European Journal of Science Research, 23:4, 528-536

Aschalew D.(2009) Determinants of household participation in water source Management: Achefer, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Audu, E. A. (2009): Strategic Planning Proposals for the Development of Peripheral Areas of Kaduna. An unpublished M.Sc thesis, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, A.B.U., Zaria

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